ARTICLE X

Article 10. ANNUAL CENSUS for PERSONAL BENEFITS

A census of Oceti Sakowin citizens shall be completed every year so estimates of clothing, money and food can be developed. Clothing is to be provided for thirty years to each person; money is to be set aside for each person ($10 if hunting, $20 if farming) and controlled by the Secretary of the Interior for thirty years; food is to be received by each person over four years of age for four years if settled permanently in the reservation; and a cow and pair of oxen are to be provided each family/lodge living in the reservation and farming.

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Curriculum

If you give us anything, give us something so that we can live. I am small and a married man. I have children.

Man That Walks Under The Ground, North Platte, September 20, 1867 

I want you to give us cattle and cows; we also want a bull, some sheep, and some hogs.

Long Mandan, Steamer Agnes, July 5, 1868

The Fort Laramie Treaty [contributed] to the erasure, and paradoxically, the preservation of our people.

Gwen Nell Westerman, Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate, 2019

Each man to receive a suit of clothes, a shirt, a hat, pantaloons and woolen socks. Each farming family to be given a cow and a team of well broke American oxen.

Roger Broer, Oglala Sioux Tribe, 2019

Article 10 speaks to me about the change that took place rather quickly. Going from a hunter-gather lifestyle to a sedentary lifestyle for a nomadic people created many changes ... Today we feel the effects of that change with high rates of heart disease, diabetes and obesity.

Gerald Cournoyer, Oglala Sioux Tribe, 2019

I believe it would be beneficial to everyone who would have lived under this treaty to know what it contains.

Trevino Brings Plenty, Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, 2019

ARTICLE 10. In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities provided to be paid to the Indians herein named, under any treaty or treaties heretofore made, the United States agrees to deliver at the agency-house on the reservation herein named, on or before the first day of August of each year, for thirty years, the following articles, to wit:

For each male person over fourteen years of age, a suit of good substantial woolen clothing, consisting of coat, pantaloons, flannel shirt, hat, and a pair of home-made socks. For each female over twelve years of age, a flannel skirt, or the goods necessary to make it, a pair of woolen hose, twelve yards of calico, and twelve yards of cotton domestics. For the boys and girls under the ages named, such flannel and cotton goods as may be needed to make each a suit as aforesaid, together with a pair of woolen hose for each. And in order that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be able to estimate properly for the articles herein named, it shall be the duty of the agent each year to forward to him a full and exact census of the Indians, on which the estimate from year to year can be based.

And in addition to the clothing herein named, the sum of ten dollars for each person entitled to the beneficial effects of this treaty shall be annually appropriated for a period of thirty years, while such persons roam and hunt, and twenty dollars for each person who engages in farming, to be used by the Secretary of the Interior in the purchase of such articles as from time to time the condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper. And if within the thirty years, at any time, it shall appear that the amount of money needed for clothing under this article can be appropriated to better uses for the Indians named herein, Congress may, by law, change the appropriation to other purposes; but in no event shall the amount of this appropriation be withdrawn or discontinued for the period named. And the President shall annually detail an officer of the Army to be present and attest the delivery of all the goods herein named to the Indians, and he shall inspect and report on the quantity and quality of the goods and the manner of their delivery. And it is hereby expressly stipulated that each Indian over the age of four years, who shall have removed to and settled permanently upon said reservation and complied with the stipulations of this treaty, shall be entitled to receive from the United States, for the period of four years after he shall have settled upon said reservation, one pound of meat and one pound of flour per day, provided the Indians cannot furnish their own subsistence at an earlier date. And it is further stipulated that the United States will furnish and deliver to each lodge of Indians or family of persons legally incorporated with them, who shall remove to the reservation herein described and commence farming, one good American cow, and one good well-broken pair of American oxen within sixty days after such lodge or family shall have so settled upon said reservation.